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The necessary for ARP arise from the fact that in IP v4 packet header there is insufficient space to store MAC address along with the host part of the IP address (IPX and IPv6 can do that; that means that for those protocols there is generally less need for protocols like ARP although it still can serve MAC addresses to them, if necessary).Therefore in order for two hosts to communicate, the logical IPv4 address must be resolved to the physical address of the network adapter card (MAC address). The idea is somewhat similar to DNS (in this case IP serves as pseudo DNS name that is resolved to MAC address).Hey ARP, Did You Know Gullible Is Not in the Dictionary?
Some advanced switches has built-in protection from flooding.
The main problem with arp is that this a very old protocol created in 1982 and naturally it was created without any regards for security.
ARP is necessary because the sending host must complete the contents of the target address field in the Ethernet frame. If the final destination (receiving system) of the message being sent is on the same LAN as the sending system, only one ARP address resolution is required.
The ARP table, cached in memory, stores requested (solicited) Ethernet addresses for up to 20 minutes.
This table is read each time a destination Ethernet address is required to prepare an Ethernet frame for transmission.
Most important commands ARP poisoning enables local hackers to cause general networking mayhem.